Updated 30 August 2016

Links to documents on the Lambeth Palace website have been restored.

Menu system changed to help mobile devices.

History of Deane, Bolton-le-Moors, Lancs

Deane Church has been on the site for hundreds of years. From time to time, someone writes of the history of the church. Slowly, more documents will be added to this site.

History of Deane booklet

History of Deane (pdf)

History of Deane - Transcript (pdf)

History of Deane
Bolton-Le-Moors, Lancs.

A History with Bibliography
Of Deane, Bolton-Le-Moors
Its Church and Clergy
Schools & Schoolmasters
Historical Characters

By J.J.T.Hill
F.R.Hist Soc.


By Rev. J.R. Line, M.A., Vicar of Deane.

Everyone ought to learn all they can about the place in which they live. If it has anything of special interest they ought to know about it. If like Deane, the main interest of place centres round an ancient Parish Church, its people should welcome anything which helps to tell the story. The story of England is bound up with that of her old Churches. They are silent Historians, whose tale can only be read by those who have eyes to see and patience to learn. It is the object of this little book to contribute to the knowledge of those who desire to learn more about their old Church.

During early six centuries of History the old Village Church of Deane has stood the silent witness of centuries of changing life. At first the Chapel of a great Abbey, it became the Mother Church of a district whose population now numbers nearly hundred and twenty-three thousand souls living in twenty parishes.

"The old order changed, yielding peace to new."

Our old Church, once standing in a tiny village in the picturesque moorland, is now almost embraced by the growth of busy thriving Bolton, and links old times and new together. May this little book, the work of one who loves the Church & her children, receive a hearty welcome.

Deane Vicarage, 1914

A Bibliography of Deane and its Neighbourhood.

Barton: Historical Gleanings. 1881
The Owen MSS. (Manchester Refer. Library).
Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society Publications.
Clegg: Annals of Bolton. 1888.
Whittle: History of Bolton. 1855.
Whittakers: Manchester.
Baines: History of Lancashire. 1868.
Domesday Book. William I. 1086.
Scholes: History of Bolton. 1892.
Brown: History of Bolton. 1824.
Herbert Ware: Bolton.
Dorning Rasbotham: On Bolton and Deane. MSS. 1780.
Cheetham Societies' Publications. Edited by Harland.
Leyland: History of Lancashire. 1540.
Leo. H. Grindon: Lancashire Historic and Descriptive Notes. 1892.
Fox: Life of George Marsh and other works.
Roby: Traditions of Lancashire.
Coucher Book. Whalley Abbey. 1200 to 1537, in Latin.
Guerdon: Abstract of Deeds. MSS. 1277.
Major Perry: Historical Notes on Bolton.
Harleian MSS.: Copy of the Ledger Books of Vale Royal and Stanlawe Abbey. 1235.
Aitkin: History of Manchester and District.
Andrews: Antiquities and Curiosities of the Church.
Duchy of Lancaster's Pleadings. Henry VIII. 21st volume.
Churchwardens' Minutes and Accounts of Deane since 1712.
Records of State Papers. Henry VIII. 1544. (Record Office.)
Bishops' Registers. (Record Office.) 1546.
Croston: History of Lancashire.
Records of the Consistory Court in Chester. 1551.
Decrees and Orders. 1539.
Sharon Turner: Anglo Saxon Historian. 1834.
Particulars of House and Farm Accounts of Smithill's Hall. 1582. Cheetham Society.
Records of Proceedings re Edmund de Lacy. 1241.
Letters and Papers - Foreign and Domestic. Henry VIII. 1538.
The Endowments of Deane. John Heaton Partington. 1885.
George Marsh the Martyr: Four Sermons. Canon Girdlestone. 1851.
Troubles and Martyrdom of George Marsh. Rev. Alf. Hewlett. 1844.
George Marsh the Martyr. Solomon Partington. 1848.
A History of Geo. Marsh's Martyrdom. 1787.
A Memoir of Rev. John Tilsey, by J.E. Bailey. 1884.
Boardman: Records and Traditions of Deane Church. 1904

Author's Note

This is a history of essentials: the frame of the structure of Deane life for a thousand years. To those who desire to read further into the past the Bibliography gives wide and varied choice. Of all the writers about Deane, I am indebted the most for my love of matters historical to the old Churchwarden, James Boardman, and to his love and greatness in aptly illustrating the words, "A lift on the way."

The School House
Deane, Bolton


No other Church in the neighbourhood of Bolton is so ancient or has a more interesting history than the Parish Church of Deane. Dating back to Saxon times, a Church has stood on the present site for more than a thousand years, a testimony to the continuity of the English Church. Antiquarian, historical, and geological interests lie all around us, each ready to tell its story to those who will read it, and all who delve deep enough will be sure to find something of rare and immeasurable value.

The History of Deane is part of the wider history of the nation, and as the greatest heroes of history are those who have lived nearest to us, so in tracing even in a small way the historical line of Deane and its people, we shall learn much that will make us reverencial and handle lightly the historical stones of the past.

As the name Deane shows, "Dene" as Deane was formerly known dates back to Saxon times, "Dene" being the Saxon name for "valley" or "glen". The oldest name for the little river which runs alongside the Church is "Kirke Brok" which is a Saxon name for "Church Brook". Smithills Hall - the oldest Hall in the neighbourhood - has a most romantic history and was the residence of Ella, a Saxon King of Deira.

When the Romans came to Britain in 79A.D., they were famous road makers as well as warriors and a road was made across Deane Moor which led to Blackrod, thus connecting Manchester with Lancaster. One of the first journeys to the North made by the Roman Missionaries in the sixth century would be along this road to the land of Ella. It is not improbable that Deane was selected for a religious edifice to be built on account of its beauty and situation, although there is no positive evidence to that effect. The older Parish Churches were always built on sites already made holy by pre-historic religious rites and ceremonies.

It is traditional history that during the Saxon occupation of Great Britain some children from Ella's kingdom were taken to Rome and placed in the market place to be sold as slaves. Pope Gregory on his walk through the city unexpectedly seeing them, enquired from which country they came, and what kind of people they were. On being told, "Angles" he exclaimed "They look like angels," admiring their bright blue eyes, fair hair, clear skins, and gentle appearance. He was further told that their King was Ella and their land of birth Deira, of which Deane was a part.

Beyond the name "Dene" which is certainly Saxon - for most Saxon names which have survived the friction of ages are names of geographical importance, little is known of Deane village until Norman Times, when William the First ordered the first land survey for the purpose of military taxation in 1086. This book, which may still be seen, has an inventory referring to Deane as follows:-

"In Bodeltun VI car. in Dene i car" meaning that Bolton was taxable to the extent of VI. carucates of land - i.e., plough land; Deane was to be only taxed "one carucate," which would be in these days about one hundred acres of pasture or plough land.

The oldest records which exist and have definite reference to Deane Church were written during Norman Times - 13th Century. An old manuscript which is still in existence mentions "Sainte Mariden," a name by which Deane church was first known, and shows that a Church was erected so far back as 1220, and which was built on the site of an earlier one still. Some librarians place it definitely as 1100, having been erected about the same time as Eccles Parish Church, near Manchester.

Both these Churches are of similar design and construction, being solid rectangular buildings of stone devoid of all architectural embellishment except the beauty of extreme plainness. The pillars in Deane Church supporting the roof are of the later Gothic period about 1450; but there is a Norman window preserved in the vestry, whilst the pillars in the Tower are built round some earlier ones of Norman design. The ancient parish at this time extended from Bolton to Worsley, and comprised the following districts: Rumworth (Saxon name, "Rumwell," meaning wide or open), Hulton, Westhoughton, Horwich, Heaton, Halliwell, Farnworth and Kearsley.

There is a very early reference to Deane - as a side issue - in a document dated 1128 where Tomas Chaplain gives the Vicar of Eccles certain fees, "save and except the obventions of St. Mariden Dene," which evidently refers to the existence of a Norman Church at Deane.

The rich moneylender - Isaac of York - mentioned in Sir Walter Scott's romance, "Ivanhoe," was the prototype of "Aaron, the Jew of York," to whom the lands and Chapel of Sainte Mariden (Deane) were pledged by Gilbert de Barton for two hundred and fifty silver marks, worth in our day about £2,000. The advowson was redeemed by John de Lacy, 8th Baron of Halton in Cheshire, in 1235, and was given to the Cistercian Monks of Stanlawe Abbey. Stanlawe Abbey was founded in 1178.

In 1276 another knight of Norman descent, Thomas de Perpount, presented a deed of gift of certain glebe lands and bestowed them upon "the Abbot and Monks of Stanlawe and the Chapel of Saynte Mariden." This may be seen in the Coucher Book at Whalley Abbey. For nearly all the earliest known data regarding Deane Church, we are indebted to the carefully kept records of the Monks of Whalley Abbey. This Abbey was built by Gilbert de Lacy, who resided at Smithills Hall, near Bolton. The last Abbot of Whalley was John Paslow, D.D., and the following statement was found among the abbey's receipts from tithes:-

"P. Ecclesia de Eccles et de Deyn = £119-10-04½."

There were six Vicars of Deane appointed by the Abbots of Whalley.

At this time Deane Church had a pointed roof, was 72 feet long, and 52 feet wide, the chancel being 20 feet square, and there were no aisles. Pews only became common in Churches in the 14th Century; before this time rude stone benches were built in the walls round the sides. Prayers only were said in Churches, the congregation remaining standing; sermons were not common until the 17th Century.

The Yew Tree in the Church yard was planted by order of Edward III about 1350. It was enacted that Yew Trees should be planted in Churchyards to supply bows for arrows, this being the method of fighting in medieval times. There is at the south side of the Churchyard a curiously marked flat stone with a Crusader's Cross chiselled on it, but no record of inscription. This is supposed to mark the burial place of an old Crusader.

Religious feeling ran high in the village during the year 1522, which was the year following the publication of King Henry the Eighth's book on "The Defence of the Seven Sacraments," for which he received the title "Fidei Defensor," and no doubt the influence of this book provoked the following act of sacrilege. Richard Heton had built a chapel of timber inside the church in the north aisle, and dedicated it to the Holy Trinity. It was ruthlessly pulled down and destroyed early one morning by twenty-five villagers who:-

"Arrayed after ye manner of warr, that is to say with swords, bucklers, bills, bowes, and arrowes and other weapons envasyve of their maliciouse and cruell mynd ye xxiiii day of August in ye xiiii yire of ye reign of our soveraign Lord King Henry the viiith in ye nyght time about thre of the clok in the morning in riottouse warlyke and unlawfull manner entered into ye seid Church called Dene Churche and then and there riottously pulled and cutt down as well all ye tymbre worke of ye same chappell, etc., etc."

From 1536 to 1540 the monasteries of England, including Whalley Abbey, were suppressed by Henry VIII., and in many cases they were pulled down and the monks turned adrift. At first it was only intended to suppress those monasteries which had incomes of less than £200 per annum, but afterwards the greater monasteries met the same fate. Over three thousand places of religion were dismantled and their rich incomes sequestered to the King. This happened at Whalley Abbey as well as at other monasteries, and the Chapel of Saynte Mariden was one of a number of others which became Crown Livings, all their tithes and glebes being seized by the crown. The living of Deane in 1538 was rented to John Penne, one of the King's personal attendants, at £50 per annum.

In 1541 the Chapel of Saynte Mariden was made the mother Church of ten townships, and became separate from Eccles church. The first clergyman to be appointed by the Crown to Deane when it became a separate living was Rev. William Rothwell in 1542. A complete list of Vicars of Deane is here given:-

Vicars of Deane.

1240Thomas de HalgthAppointed by the Abbot of
1471Wilfred de WhalleyWhalley Abbey
1520Willus de Cledesham"
1521Peres Crompton"
1522Galfri de Catherall"
1531Theodore de Paslew"
1542William RothwellAppointed by the Crown
1575David Dee"
1593Lancelot Clegg"
1636Richard Hardie"
1643John Tilsley"
1663John Angier"
1673Richard Hatton"
1712James Rothwell"
1767Thomas Withnell"
1776Robert Latham"
1818Thomas Brocklebank"
1830Edward Girdlestone"
1855Francis H. Thicknesse"
1868William Bashall"
1877Henry Sheridan Patterson"
1912(March 19th)John Russell LineAppointed by the Simeon Trustees

New Parishes out of Deane.

Out of the ancient parish has been carved the following new parishes:-

1111Deane Parish Church.
1200Smithills Chapel.
1509St. Bartholomew's ; Westhoughton.
1600Holy Trinity ; Horwich.
1826St. John's ; Farnworth.
1840St Peter's ; Halliwell.
1848St Paul's ; Halliwell.
1859St. John the Divine ; Wingates.
1865St. Paul's ; Little Hulton.
1865St. James' ; New Bury.
1871St. Stephen's ; Kearsley.
1874St. Luke's ; Halliwell.
1876St. John the Baptist ; Little Hulton.
1879St. Thomas'; Halliwell.
1881St. James' ; Daisy Hill.
1884St George the Martyr ; Rumworth.
1886St. Peter's ; Farnworth.
1898Christ Church ; Heaton.
1900St Catherine's ; Horwich.
1909All Saints' ; Farnworth.
1912Lostock (Conventional).
1912Morris Green (Conventional).

The Rev. Wm. Rothwell, M.A., was one of King Edward the Fifth's Chaplains, and his stipend as Vicar of Deane was £4 per annum, which was afterwards increased in 1602 for later Vicars to £12. He sued the Vicar of Eccles for a similar sum, but failed in his suit, for Deane being now a Crown Living having a separately appointed vicar, was now independent of Eccles. The following is taken from a transcript of an inventory made by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners about this time, and relates to articles of furniture in Deane Church :-

"This indenture made ye laste daye of Sept. in ye VIth yere of ye Reigne off or. sovyng lorde Edward the Sexte, by the Grace of God Kyng off Englande, France and Ireland, defendor off ye faith and in earthe off ye Churche off Englande and Ireland supreme head. Sir William Rothwell Vicar of Deyne, etc., etc.,
ii. chaleses.
iii. copes.
viii. vestments to say masse in Lackyng (Latin).
iii. abbes.
ix. aulter clothes.
ii. shetes.
vi. corporasses with iii. Cases.
xvi. peces of olde lynnen.
iii. course cloths.
ii. surplises.
ii. cruettes.
A pair of sensers wt. a shippe of brasse and a brazen bucket."

George Marsh, Deane's greatest historical character, was born at Broadgate, Deane, about the year 1515 his father being a farmer and woolstapler. He attended either the Bolton Grammar School or a Grammar School near Farnworth - it is not known which, and on the death of his father became a farmer. He married when 25 years of age and had several children. His wife dying soon afterwards, he placed his children in the care of his father, and entered Cambridge University. Later still he became curate of All Hallow's Church, Bread Street, London.

It was whilst here that he, amongst others, went through the country on a preaching tour to spread the Reformation principles. During this crusade he paid a visit to Deane and preached the reformed doctrine in the ancient Church, occupying the same pulpit which is still in existence. He was arrested by the Earl of Derby, who was Lord Lieutenant of the County, and was afterwards condemned to death on the charge of preaching sedition and false doctrine in the Parish Church of Deane. He suffered martyrdom by being burned at Chester on April 24th, 1555. There is a carving on the Alter Table in the Church depicting his martyrdom, showing the barrel of tar which was placed over his head. There is also an oil painting on the east side of the chancel, which bears a striking resemblance to one of the later vicars of Deane. A stone cross was erected in the Churchyard path in 1893 to the martyr's memory by the Rev. H.S. Patterson, and in 1897 a memorial stained glass window was placed in the north side of the Church by Mr. James Boardman, formerly warden, a brass plate underneath recording the fact of its erection by the Ex-warden Association of Deane Church.

An early reference to the Church Wardens of Deane is found in some farm accounts of Smithill's Hall, and is dated 1594, one entry amongst many others almost similar reads as follows:-

"To the Churche wardens of Dene for ye reparacon of the Churche there viiid."

During 1601 an Act of Parliament was passed enabling Churchwardens to levy rates for the relief of the poor. Before this time the monasteries did good work in looking after the poor, and no penniless man was ever turned away empty from their doors.

In 1615, Giles Marsh, who had a farm in Deane Parish died, and in his will he left £10 which was invested in lands towards the support of a School in Deane. This would be the old building now used as a barn which is opposite the Lych Gate. Reference is again made to the Churchwardens of Deane in the same will, for the executors were called upon to find:-

"Two sureties for payment both of principal and interest to the Churchwardens until a stipend for the said school be laboured for or otherwise by the commissioners for pious uses."

In 1624 a later legacy of forty shillings a year was left by Ralph Barton and Ralph Heaton for a School at Deane. In 1660, John Tilsey, then Vicar of Deane, was instrumental in securing £462 from the estate of James Crompton, which was invested and realised in 1834:-

"£38 for the Poor ; for Deane Schools £32."

In 1720 there were four schools in Deane Parish. The salary of the Deane Master was £11. The present stone building was erected in 1820, and a school was built for infants in 1835. This was demolished afterwards, being too small, and the present brick building was erected in 1882.

The unjust imposition of "Ship Money" by Charles the First in 1635 played an important part in bringing about the Civil War, and it had its effect in Deane, for in a list of contributions to the same appears:-

"Cur. Deane, Alex Horrox, pd. 3s. 4d."

It was during the Reverend Richard Hardie's time that Deane Parish Registers began to be kept, the earliest of which is dated 1637, although an earlier one was in existence and was referred to in a law suit in 1598, but has been lost. These were faithfully entered in Latin, and included baptisms, marriages, and burials.

Under the heading of baptisms is the following:-

"October 8th, 1665, 'John O' God's Sending.'"

This was the name given to a baby boy which was found on the vicarage doorstep one summer morning, and was afterwards adopted by the then vicar the Rev. John Angier.

Under burials dated Oct. 31st, 1796, is the following curious entry:-

"Wm. son of Wm. Horrocks of Rumworth."

There is a note to this at the bottom of the page, in the vicar's handwriting, which reads as follows:-

"Wm. son of Wm. Horrocks was robbed and murdered by Saml. Longworth in Dean Church Lane as he was returning from Bolton about 8 o'clock at night, Oct. 27th, 1796. Longworth was executed at Lancaster in the beginning of April following. Gibeted on Dean Moor and hung about 8 weeks."

Feeling ran high during the days prior to the Civil War, for five clergymen in the Parish of Deane signed the "National Protestation" in 1642. Their names were:-

Sir Thos. Barton, Knight.
Edward Rawsthorne, Esqr.
Alexander Horrockes, Clerke.
Richard Hardie, Clerke.
Thomas Johnson, Clerke.
John Tildsley, Clerke.
James Walton, Clerke.
Then follows the names of nine Churchwardens.

The Civil War of 1642-1649, which ended in the execution of Charles the First, reflected to a large extent the character of Deane people and the perilous times in which they lived. In England over three thousand ministers were expelled from their Churches, and the Book of Common Prayer was prohibited for a time. The Vicar at this time was Reverend Richard Hardie, and he had a more famous divine as his curate, named John Tilsley, who was afterwards chaplain of the Lancashire Parliamentary Forces under Sir John Seaton. After fighting in many skirmishes, he retired to Deane and became Vicar in 1643.

He did much to keep alive that sturdy independent Lancashire character, not because he opposed the idea of kingship, but because he thought (although wrongly) that Charles was a Roman Catholic. He was Vicar at Deane until 1663. During that long period of time he was noted for the many fearless letters he wrote advocating the Reformed Faith, and he also served on various committees of warfare regarding the rebellion in Lancashire. It was during his days that Bolton was twice besieged by the King's troops, once sacked, and the inhabitants mercilessly slaughtered. He was also three times ejected from Deane Church, and once imprisoned in the Tower of London for non-conforming with the Acts of the Puritan Government.

In later years he returned to Deane, and being a very determined man, again resumed preaching, and he sued the Commissioners for arrears of salary owing to him during the period he was absent. When the "Five Mile Act" was passed, which prevented expelled ministers from settling within five miles of a town or the place of their ministrations, the Vicar still resided at the Vicarage of Deane, but did not preach in the Church. Two years afterwards he was again allowed to minister to the people and preach in the Church, but was finally ejected in 1678.

He was a Feoffee of Humphrey Chetham's Hospital, Manchester, and was one of a number appointed to purchase goodly books to be chained in the Churches of Manchester, Walmsley, and Gorton. After his third ejectment from Deane in 1678, he retired to Manchester, and died on the 12th of December, 1684. He was buried in Deane Churchyard near the yew tree, his wife being buried there beside him. The inscription on his tomb reads:-

"Here lyeth the body of John Tilsley Clerk Master of Arts and sometime Vicar of Deane which was interred the 16th of December, 1684."

The successor to the Rev. John Tilsley was John Angier, who made a note in Latin in the Parish Registers that he was duly instituted in 1663. He was Vicar of Deane until 1672. There is still used in the Church a paten and a chalice which were presented to the Church during his vicariate, the one by Mrs. Judith Hulton, 1665, the other by John Aynsworth, also in 1665. There is another chalice undated, the design of which shows an earlier period of metal work.

The Rev. Richard Hatton was Vicar of Deane thirty-nine years. His grave lies on the left of the Church porch. Mary, his second wife, was the daughter of the celebrated Puritan, John Okey, who resided in Deansgate, Bolton.

The Rev. James Rothwell was Vicar from 1712 to 1766, and he began the present system of keeping Churchwarden's accounts. One of the earliest of his records is dated August 2nd, 1723, and is in his own handwriting as follows:-

"It is consented to by and with ye consent of ye vicar and churchwardens of ye parish of Dean that ye sum of forty pounds be collected and gathered towards ye new hanging of ye bells and other incidental charges. James Rothwell, Vicar."

The Churchwardens' accounts for August, 1796, read as follows:-
"Paid to John Clarkson for weather cock 6s. 0d."

This is the present weather cock on the Tower, and is 2 feet 1½ inches long, the same height, weighs 19 lbs., and is dated on its tail 1796.

In April, 1734, an attempt was made to redress certain grievances, for at a meeting held by the parishioners, it was agreed:-
"(1) That ye churchwardens at ye expiration of their office shall be allowed according to custom eight shillings and no more.
(2) That ye churchwardens shall only be allowed eleven shillings or one shilling per man for attending ye Dean's court to be sworn.
(3) That ye churchwardens for the future shall not allow any workman drink at ye parish expence, nor be allowed themselves any drink or any other claim, except what above is mentioned, upon any pretense whatever, but shall support ye burden of his office at his own proper expence.
(4) That no churchwarden during his time of office shall be employed as a workman in any repairs relating to ye church.
(5) That upon Easter Tuesday shall be held a parish meeting to inspect ye churchwardens' account, and that at every parish meeting every person shall bear his own expence.
J. Rothwell, Vicar."

It is still the custom to hold the Vestry Meeting on Easter Tuesday.

There are six Churchwardens' staffs of office, each six feet long, surmounted by a silver cap. Two are dated 1844, two dated 1877, and two dated 1904.

The Charities in connection with this ancient Parish Church are as follows: An early one is dated 1653, and refers to £60 given by John Guest to Deane and seven other parishes. Crompton's Charity was £8 per annum, the income from a farm at Tottington. John Rishton gave the interest on £40 to the poor of Farnworth in the days of George III. Ralph Crompton, M.D., left £50 in 1613 to the poor of Rumworth, and later in 1658, £136 : 6: 5 was also given, being the rest of his estate. James Crompton in 1636 gave £100 to the poor at Rumworth. In 1828 the net yearly sum of this charity was £38. John Laithwaite in 1728 gave £10, which was placed in the above charity. Joseph Rigby also left an endowment to Deane School. A part of John Guest's charity of £500 is also received. Ann Mort in 1671 left £50 for the use of the Minister at Deane.

Banns of marriage were first published in Deane Church in 1734. The handsome brass candelabra which hangs in the Chancel was purchased in 1737, and was formerly in the nave of the Church.

The Rev. Thos. Withnell was Vicar from 1767 to 1776. A descendant of his, Miss Ellen Low Ashton, erected the present lych-gate in 1903. A brass plate inside records the following:-
"To the Glory of God for national mercies throughout successive generations and in memory of Tho. Withnell, Vicar of Deane A.D. 1767-76.
This lych gate was erected by Ellen Low Ashton, A.D. 1903."

The old Lych-gate, which was built of wood, was taken down in 1799.

The Rev. Robt. Latham, who was Vicar from 1776 to 1817, was a native of Wigan. At this time it was common practice for people to be buried in the Church as well as in the Churchyard, as the following extract from the Churchwardens' minutes will show:-

"18th September, 1777.
Dues payable to the Viker.

Publication of banns of marriage,10
Marriage by lycense,60
" published by banns34
Man woman or child interred in Churchyard10
Man woman or child interred in the Church,22
Certificate in respect to marriage, 24

Robt. Latham, Vicar.
Holland Bradley, Clerk."

A gallery existed at this time (1777), for mention is made of one in a deed of gift, "A pew in the new gallery," which refers to the west gallery. There is further reference to a gift, "by a father-in-law to his son-in-law of a pew in the west gallery," in 1800.

In 1833 side galleries were erected in the north and south aisles of the Church.

In 1800, Deane Toll Bar was erected, but was finally closed in October 31st, 1878. It stood about fifty yards below the Vicarage gates. There were many elm trees in Deane Churchyard at this time, and half-way down the Church Walk two are still living. These two mark the original entrance to the Churchyard, which was extended southward in 1799, the Churchyard wall and draining costing £80.

A violincello bought in 1801 for the use of the choristers cost £7 17s. 6d. A new trumpet bought in 1816 cost £9 11s. The singers sat in the west gallery, and the pews in the north and south galleries were evidently considered private property, and could be rented at a yearly rental. Two hautboys were bought in 1805 for £4 4s. A later extract from the Churchwardens' minutes of 1827 reads that:-
"The musical instruments belonging to the Church sold for £12 12s. 10d."

This marks the date of the first organ (1826) built in the west gallery of the Church. A printed circular in the Vestry states that:-
"On Sunday Sept. 10th 1826 the new organ will be opened in the Parish Church of Dean and a Sermon preached by the Bishop of the Diocese."

A later organist was Thomas Nuttall, who was blind, the result of smallpox in his youth. He died in 1866. Two years before his death he retired, and was succeeded by Mr. John Miles, now Alderman John Miles, J.P., who completed his fiftieth year as organist and choirmaster at Easter, 1914.

In 1901 a silver Mace was presented to the Church by some admiring friends of the organist, to mark his being made Mayor of Bolton. The Mace is surmounted by a pelican, whilst at the base is a monk's head with a shield bearing the inscription, "Hominum piscatores" (Fishers of Men), taken from the arms of Whalley Abbey.

Among the curious entries at this time in the Churchwardens' minutes are the following:-

"Sunday evening, Jan. 5th, 1807, many loitering in the Churchyard brought into the Church.
Edward Kearsley, Churchwarden. December 25th, 1807. Christmas Day. Collection for the Singers, £5/15/10.
Ap. 7th, 1811. A collection in the Parish Church of Deane for the British Prisoners in France "£4/8/1¼.
May 2nd, 1811. Miss Potter paid me the above and i paid it to the Vickar.
Isaac Lythgoe. May 14th, 1811. George Smith (the Constable) received 3 fines of James Partington 1/-, Mr. Halliwell 1/-, John Halliwell 1/- for Saboth breaking.
Paid the above to the Sunday School at Dean."

The Vicar, Rev. Robt. Latham, died suddenly in Hulton Causeway (Hulton Lane) on returning after baptising an infant in David Brow. He was succeeded by the Rev. Thos. Brocklebank in 1818, who died in 1829.

The sun-dial in the Churchyard was erected in 1819, the pillar originally standing in Westhoughton Church.

Two flagons were presented to the Church in 1800, one by Jane, the daughter of Peter Brooke, Esq., of Mere Hall, Cheshire, and the other by Wm. Hulton, Esq., of Hulton Park.

The Rev. Ed. Girdlestone became Vicar in 1830. The stained-glass window in the Chancel was erected during his vicariate. Several disputes having arisen as to the correct ownership of pews in the Church, at a meeting of parishioners the following was agreed upon as being the correct proportion:-

"Earl of Bradford,13 pews.
Lord Egerton,39 "
Wm. Hulton, Esq.,70 "
The Parish,200 "
Wm. Heelis, Esq.,18 "

And that in future all repairs be paid for in the above proportion instead of as heretofore in equal shares."

The pinnacles on the Tower were the gift of Peter Ainsworth, Esq., M.P. for Bolton, in 1844.

Originally the path to the River Croal across Parson's Bridge went from Broadgate Road between the Church and the Vicarage. This was altered in 1847, so as to run alongside Kirke Brok (now called "The Clough"). The expense of the new road, according to the Churchwardens' minutes of that date, being £30.

Abraham Boardman, the Parish Clerk and Schoolmaster, was the last of the old picturesque figures who wore "knee breeches, shoes with buckles, silk stockings, and a black satin stock." He was buried near the Church Porch, and his gravestone bears the following remarkable inscription:-

"In memory of the Rev. Robert Latham, M.A., Vicar of Deane for more than 41 years. He died suddenly Oct. 22nd, 1817, on his return from baptising a child.
His last text was Ps. 119, 70, My delight hath been in Thy law. He was buried at Wigan, his native town, October 27, 1817.
Also of Giles Boardman of Rumworth, who died August 16th, 1816, aged 71.
A friend so true there are but few,
And difficult to find.
A man more just and true to trust
He has not left behind.
Also of Mary his wife, who died May 4th, 1806, aged 55.
A dropsy more than seven years I bore,
Twenty-three times I tapped was,
By which sad means to ease my pains
Above 80 gallons were took, Alas !
Also of Abraham Boardman, their son, who died June 10th, 1855, aged 73 years, who by a faithful discharge of duty as Parish Clerk of Deane 38 years and Schoolmaster, united with a benevolent and amiable disposition and gave good proof of faith in that Blessed Redeemer in whom he fell asleep and through whome alone he hoped for a glorious resurrection."

Schoolmasters of Deane

The dates of appointments of Deane Schoolmasters so far as can be ascertained, are as follows:-

Abraham Boardman.1799.
John Barfield.1839.
John Horsfield.Jan., 1840.
Moses Molineaux.Jan. 20th, 1870.
Charles Hughes.April 1st, 1878.
E. S. Jacques.August 11th, 1884.
John Kershaw.Jan. 11th, 1897.
Alfred Ainscough.Aug. 30th, 1897.
John J. T. HillApril 29th, 1901.

About this time (1848) died Mrs. Elizabeth Green, of Heaton, who had when she died 150 direct descendants, 60 of whom attended her funeral. Her grave lies to the left of the Church path.

Cannon Girdlestone was succeeded by the Rev. Francis H. Coldwell, M.A., afterwards called Thicknesse. Three years later he was Rural Dean of Bolton, and in 1863 was made a Canon of Manchester Cathedral. In 1888 he was Suffragan Bishop of Leicester.

The Churchyard was extended northwards in 1857, in 1876 and later still in 1896. Mrs. Mary Ann Thickness, the Vicar's wife, gave £1,000 on trust for the erection of a proposed Church, which was afterwards built at Wingates. At this time there were six Churchwardens, one each for Rumworth, Over Hulton, Middle Hulton, Little Hulton, Westhoughton, and Heaton. No sidesmen were then elected. The Vicar, being offered the living of Brackley, resigned Deane in 1868.

The Rev. Wm. Bashall, M.A., was instituted in 1868. His wife was a niece of John Hicks, Esq., for many years M.P. for Bolton. The Church rate being abolished in 1868, a pew rent was charged on 507 sittings, which realised at 4/- each about £100. With the abolition of Church rates, the outlying districts ceased to contribute to the support of the mother Church. The balance sheet of the Wardens for 1870 was as follows:-

Easter Vestry Balance Sheet, 1870.
Additional Curate's Society ...81610
Organ Fund ... 14113
Bolton Church of England Missionary Society ... 1425
Offertories for the Poor ...19118
Thank Offering ....500
Poor Box083
Annual Sermons for the Schools13086
Donations to New Organ ...177181
Guest's Charity.
To Rent of Cottage :£900
By Vicar and Wardens for distribution to the poor,£900

Note: Guest's Charity is separate from Crompton's charities, for which Trustees still disburse clothing to the Poor in Deane.

In consequence of ill-health, Mr. Bashall resigned Deane Living on the 7th of November, 1876, and went to live in the South of England. He died in 1902, aged 72.

The Rev. Henry Sheridan Patterson was instituted to the living in April, 1877, and was Vicar until February, 1912. During the year he was instituted the advowson was transferred to the Simeon Trustees.

The handsome brass lectern eagle was the gift of W.W.B.Hulton, Esq. (afterwards the First Baronet) in 1877. During the next year the Church School at Lostock was opened, largely owing to the generosity of William Heaton, Esq. On March 5th, 1880, St. George the Martyr Church was consecrated. It was originally intended to give it the name of "Marsh Memorial Church," in memory of George Marsh.

Deane Church was completely restored in 1884 at a cost of £2,568 6s. 0d. The old galleries were removed not being safe and an organ chamber built on the south side of the Chancel, which was lengthened ten feet and the pews re-arranged so as to face the east. Two new bells were placed in the Church in 1896, making the number complete - i.e., eight bells in the key of F sharp.

Deane became incorporated with the Borough of Bolton in 1898, James Platt, Esq., being the first alderman for Deane-cum-Lostock division. In September, 1907, the Deane Schools Old Scholars' Association Historical Society was formed to carry on the study of history, a subject which has such ready material to hand.

There are seven stained-glass windows in the Church, including the east window in the Chancel. Two are to the memory of Miss Elizabeth Heelis, one to the memory of Jane, the wife of James Greenhalgh, another to the memory of George Marsh the Martyr, one to the memory of John Kynaston Cross, who was eleven years Member of Parliament for Bolton and Under-Secretary of State for India, and one erected to the memory of Sir Wm. Hulton, the First Baronet.

The following books are kept in a glass case near the organ:-
A Bible of 1549.
A fac-similie of the MSS. Copy of Prayer Book.
The Book of Homilies.
Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
Charles the Second's Prayer Book.
The Works of Bishop Jewell.
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Pollity.
Burnett's History of the Reformation.
All of which were ordered by Parliamentary Convocation and Crown to be placed in Churches.

Three Deane Clergy were raised to the Episcopate:
H. Montague Villiers, Curate of Deane, 1836, became Bishop of Carlisle, 1856; he was the fifth nephew of Lord Clarendon, and married a daughter of Wm. Hulton, Esq., of Hulton Park. W.K.Macrorie, Curate 1858 to 1860, was the first Vicar of Wingates, and afterwards became Bishop of Maritzburg, 1869. F.H.Thicknesse, Vicar 1855 to 1868, became Suffragan Bishop of Leicester, 1888 to 1902.

Deane is noted for having a woman Sexton, who on occasions donned the breeches and digged the graves. She was Alice Sixsmith, widow of Wright Sixsmith, who was Sexton about 1840, and who died aged 27. His widow was Sexton until her son, John Sixsmith, was old enough to receive the appointment. Following him, later Sextons were Thomas Halliwell, James Higson, Thomas Sanderson, and William Duckworth.

On the north side of the Church is a Tablet to the memory of Dorning Rasbotham, which reads as follows:-

In memory of
Dorning Rasbotham, Esq., of Birch House in this Parish,
To which place he retired from Manchester, his native town,
In the year 1762, that he might there possess
The ease and independence of a private country gentleman.
This situation he was well prepared
To enjoy, by great ardour in literary studies
To adorn by engaging manners, which secured
The affectionate attachment of a large circle
Of respectable friends;
And to render singularly useful to the public,
By a most active and able discharge
Of the duties of a Justice of the Peace.
In this office and in the highest functions of it,
As Chairman of the Quarter Sessions where he often presided,
He acquired in a very eminent degree
The high esteem of the gentlemen at the Bar,
The cordial regard of his fellow Magistrates, and
The grateful confidence of the public at large,
With a consistency never impeached and never suspected,
The characters of the poor man's friend,
And of the firm asserter of Order, Law, and Justice.
In these important services he persevered until his death
With the exception of one year during which
He served the office of High Sheriff for the County of Lancaster.
He died November 7th, 1791, aged 61 years,
Here also lie the remains of Sarah, his wife,
Oldest daughter of James Bailey, Esq., of Manchester,
Who died April 30th, 1805, aged 77 years.
Their surviving children have erected this monument
In memory of parents so revered and so dear.

Amongst the many Tablets erected by the Hulton family is one which reads as follows:-

Memory of
Lieut.-Colonel Henry Hulton,
Of Preston, son of Wm. Hulton, of
Hulton Park, in this Parish, Esquire.
He died 28th September, 1831, aged 66,
And was interred in the vault beneath.
Also of
Louisa Caroline, his wife, daughter of
John Hooke Campbell, of Bangeston Hall,
Pembrokeshire, Lord Lyon of Scotland.
She died 31st March, 1863, aged 89, and was interred
At Lytham.
Also of
Henry William, their eldest son, who with three
Companions was drowned in the Ribble, near Preston, 24th April,
1823, aged 21, and was interred
In the vaults beneath.
Also of George Jessop, their third son, doctor of
Medicine, who died in the service of the Honourable
East India Company, on board the Palinuris, off
The southern coast of Arabia, 10th September,
1836, aged 26.
Also of Anne, sister of Lieut.-Colonel Hulton, and
Wife of Bannistre Parker, of Guerdon Hall
In this county, Esquire. She died
24th December, 1830, in her 72nd year,
And was interred at Leyland.

Near the Hulton Chapel there is a small marble Tablet fixed in the wall, which was originally a door leading to the Chapel:-

Juxta hoc sepulchrale marmor,
Pietatis ergo et memoriæ positum
Reliquias suas condi volnerunt
Plurimi de stripe Hultonia.

This translated reads as follows:-

Near this sepulchral tablet
Erected as an affectionate Memorial,
A great number of the Hulton family
Have caused their remains to be interred.

Near the south door built in the wall outside the Church is the head and shoulders of a stone grotesque figure with a bag - thought to be a fish - on its back. This emblem was in the older building erected prior to 1450, and was built in the Church wall at the latter date. It is figurative of the Arms of Whalley Abbey.

The pews are of great antiquity, and some are elaborately carved, particularly in the door to the Hulton Chapel. The tower screen, organ front, and reredos are designed in the Gothic period, and are very handsome. The old pulpit has already been mentioned, whilst the square back raised above it was formerly the front of the reading desk and dates back to 1450.

Curious Epitaphs.

There are many curious epitaphs in the old burial ground:-

John Seddon died in 1685,
Many a one pure and bright,
And in his natural spirit gay,
With tears for all and others ills,
Unless he could assuage the woe
Which he abhorred to view below.
He faded and was calm and weak,
So softly worn, so sweetly meek,
So tearless - yet so tender - kind -
And grieved for those he left behind.
With all the while a cheek whose bloom
Was a mockery of the tomb,
Yet he died.

How sudden and how swift the stroke
By which the tender thread of life was broke,
Reader reflect what happened unto me
For ought though know may happen unto thee.

Another gives advice to wives:-

She was, but words are wanting
to say what; think what a
wife should be, she was that.

All flesh is grass, and all its glory fades
Like a fair flower dishevelled in the wind.
Riches have wings and grandeur is a dream
The Rites we celebrate end in the tomb.

He was honest, industrious, and a
strict observer of the Sabbath.

Who e'er thou art that stops to read this stone,
pause for a while, and think how soon life's gone.
He that is here was well in health like thee,
and in one moment of eternity,
the ponderous load from off the cart did fall,
and killed him instantly against a wall.
Sudden he went, but He who died for all
Can save poor souls when the trumpet sounds the call.

Farewell, vain world, I've seen enough of thee,
And now are careless what thou say'st of me.
Thy smiles I court not, nor thy frowns I fear,
My cares are past, my head lies buried here.
What faults you saw in me
Take care to shun,
And look at home
Enough there's to be done.

Another with which it is fitting to close:-

Death may meet us soon or later,
On the deck or in the cot,
But we cannot meet it better
Than in working out our lot.

Assistant Clergy.

The following is a list of Assistant Clergy from 1824:-

Thos. Whalley.Engt. Horley.
Thos. Airey.Wm. Leader.
J.S. Baker.J.M. Shepherd.
E. Girdleston (afterwards Vicar).J.R. Thomas.
Henry Powys.Robt. B. Hull.
Thos. Stone.Edward Piggott.
J.S. Bolden.Herbert Munn.
George Moody.T.M. Knowles.
Edward Hayes.H. Williams.
Frank Hewson.T.A. Clarke.
Thos. Bowman.J. Davies.
Montague Villiers.C.F. Forster.
A.W.H. Rose.E. Wilkes.
Edward Leigh.Thos. Douglas.
William Burdett.Fredk. Walker.
Henry L. Boyce.Herbt. Snape.
L.J. Hornby.J. Copithorne.
A.G. Edonart.A. Gault.
Robt. Morwood.J.E. Jump.
Edward Pigot.W. Martin.
J.D. Raven.Samuel Shepherd.
B. White.H. Carless.
Peter Nunn.Wm. Bothamly.
J.C. Bagshaw.George Moore.
Thos. W. Langdon.Chas. F. Ward.
Theops. Sharp.G. Lovett.
Edward Saul.F.H. Collinson.
A.G. Campbell.Walter H. Green.
G. Soden.F. La Mothe.
B. Hodgens.F. Clewarth.
A. Townley Parker.C.M.C. Bone.
J.E. Mallinson.Thos. Cole.
John Lowe.Ed. Bush.
Wm. Goodall.Richard Norris.
F. Digby Legard.W. Gower Jones.
W.K. Macrorie.F. Smith.
N.H. Fogg.

List of Churchwardens.

The following is a list of Churchwardens and Sidesmen:-

1592Henry Cowper (one of a James Jackson
number)E.S. Jacques
1642Robert WebsterWm. Markland
George SweetloveJohn Haslam
John ManckesW.J. Redford
Wm. HopeA.G. McCarter
Adam RigbyeJas. A. Mather
John RycroftThos. H. Wood
John EdgeJohn Johnson
Giles HigsonHerbt. Crook
1756Christopher SmethurstSaml. Warburton
Ralph SeddonWm. Crompton
James BoardmanJesse Clegg
John HobsonRoger Bridge
Joseph DoddRobt. Farnworth
James FletcherHarry Leah
Thos. DoodsonGeorge Hilton
Robt. BrooksFred. Yates
Thos. BartonJames B. Rigby
Nathaniel NuttallCounc. Robt. Kenyon
Joseph WatsonJohn J.T. Hill
James PendleburyGeorge Farrant
1867James BoardmanA.W. Roscoe
James HeatonH. Pearson
Edward GaskellA.R. Scowcroft
Thos. HodgsonFrank Gregg
Joshua GregoryGeorge Cullen
Thos. MasonErnest Walkden
Of more recent dates:-J.H. Knighton
Wm. GreenJoseph Rowe
Henry PooleGerard Bowden
Matthew HampsonFrank Porter
John Heaton PartingtonGeo. H. Smith
Peter HolmesW.J. Oddy
James SewartJ.H. Newton
Wm. WestwellJ. Boothroyd
Carlton CrossW. Anderson
Jas. TaylorE.R. Shawcross
A. MarshallDr. R. Haslam
A. WhiteheadJ.H. Boardman
James H. SmithH.A. Bowness
James PlattA. Briggs
James LongworthJas. Ormrod
James FarnworthJas. Greenhalgh
Wm. Golding, J.P.R.P. Heald
J. MonkCouncillor Jos. Taylor
Henry HewittFrank Yates
Frank ThompsonWm Thomasson
Wm. ChadwickHerbt. Edwards

Headmistresses of Infant School

A list of Headmasters is given on pages 32 and 33.

The Infant School was separated in 1869.

Miss Liptrot1869Miss A.M. WalkerJune, 1881
Mrs. MolineauxJanuary, 1870Miss Elizabeth Simpson1882
Miss Jane CrichtonApril, 1877Miss Annie Wibbs1886
Miss E. GorseJanuary, 1880Miss M.A. Mellowdew1890

Assistant Teachers since 1865:-

Robert WilkinsonDrusilla Vose
Jamas HibbertMary A. Worsley
Philip BoothElsie Platt
Joseph HibbertFlora Grimwood
Edward BradleyMary A. Platt
James BonneyEliz. Wright
Robert SmithAlice Eckersley
Arthur HigsonSarah E. Higson
Annie MolineuxGertrude Bleakley
Emily MolineuxMary E. Adamson
Alfred HarterMary Bowen
Elizabeth CunliffeMaud Clegg
Henrietta WalkerMrs. Marshall
George MarklandJane Benson
Alice WalkerFred. Danks
Wm. H. HaslamJames Turner
Charlotte BrooksBeatrice Lily Roscoe
Alice WhiteAmelia Towell
Thomas EvasonElsie Annie Tyldesley
Annie MasonAlice Middlehurst
Robert HardmanFrank Perks
Sarah ListerAmy Shufflebotham
Edith KellettRuby Waite
James StaveleyWm. Whiteside
Mrs FarrantLily Horrocks
Charles TurverAnnie Crompton
Isabella HeatonAnnie Gregory
Fred. SparrowAurelia J. Rhodes
Margt. SunterFlorence Lomax
Matthew HigsonElmina E. Eckersley
Edith TaylorEdith Christian
James TipperMrs. E. Higham
Thos. GoodenThos. G. Hall
Annie HodgsonEleanora Eatough
Nancy WinwardEllen Hurst
Alice MedleyJohn Harold Dawson
Thos. Gregory